What Are Grad Students? Undergraduate vs. Graduate Students

One of the more confusing things to make sense in higher education are terms like ‘undergraduate’ and ‘graduate’ students. Many many not clearly know the difference, similarities and how they feed off each other.

This post aims to clarify these distinctions by exploring the unique characteristics, academic focuses, and responsibilities that define each group.

From the foundational coursework of undergraduates to the specialised research of graduate students, we’ll look at what sets these two academic journeys apart.

What Are Undergrad Students?

Undergraduate students are individuals embarking on their higher education journey, typically pursuing a bachelor’s degree.

Unlike graduate students who are focused on specialised fields, undergraduates experience a broader scope of study. 

In the U.S., for instance, the first year or two might consist of general education courses, ranging from the social sciences to the life sciences, preparing students for the more focused coursework that comes later.

It’s a time of exploration, where students can discover what truly ignites their passion. For example, someone might enter college thinking they’re destined for medical school, only to find a calling in social work or the arts.

Tuition is a significant part of the undergraduate experience, with students often seeking financial support.

The goal is to earn that coveted diploma without accumulating a mountain of debt, using:

Universities, from the ivy-covered walls of Cambridge to the sprawling campuses of the U.S., provide a backdrop for this academic and personal growth.

What Are Grad Students?

Graduate students have moved past the undergraduate phase, where the focus is often on a broad education, and are diving deep into their chosen fields.

At the graduate level, you’re looking at individuals who are committed to expanding their knowledge and expertise, typically aiming for a master’s degree or a doctoral degree.

Unlike undergraduates, grad students are more involved in original research, contributing new insights to their field of study. For example, a grad student in the life sciences might spend years conducting independent research, often culminating in a doctoral thesis.

At institutions like Cambridge or any major university in the U.S., these students work closely with an advisor, a faculty member who guides their research and academic progress.

Grad school is challenging, with students often juggling teaching assistant roles or other forms of financial support to manage tuition costs.

Yet, the payoff can be substantial, opening doors to advanced professional opportunities and the ability to lead groundbreaking research projects.

How Are Undergraduate And Postgraduate Students Similar?

Both sets of students, whether they’re just starting their journey with a bachelor’s degree or advancing through a doctoral program, share common experiences in their academic pursuits.

The Pursuit Of A Degree

Be it undergraduate or postgraduate, marks a significant commitment to education. An undergraduate stepping into college and a grad student enrolling in a doctoral program are both signalling a dedication to deepen their understanding in a chosen field.

This commitment often involves years of study, with undergraduates typically taking four years for a bachelor’s degree.

Postgraduate students might spend a similar duration or longer, depending on their course of study, to earn a master’s or doctoral degree.

Coursework And Research

Another commonality is the blend of coursework and research. Undergraduate students engage in coursework as the foundation of their education, but as they progress, independent research becomes more prevalent.

This is common in many fields of study, e.g:

  • Social sciences
  • Life sciences
  • Mathematics, and
  • More.

This mirrors the graduate experience, where coursework may set the stage, but original research and the development of new insights or solutions become the focal points.

Academic Guidance

Both groups often rely on academic guidance. Undergraduates might look to their advisors for help in selecting courses or navigating college or university life.

Postgraduate students work closely with advisors or heads of departments in their graduate school to refine their research questions and methodologies. 

This mentorship is crucial, shaping their academic journey and, in many cases, their future careers. Good mentors are capable of not just helping their students to graduate, but to help connect the student into industry, or enter the academia.

How Do Undergraduate And Graduate Students Differ?

Undergraduate and postgraduate students navigate distinct paths in their academic journeys. The differences are not just in the level of study but also in:

  • structure,
  • depth, and
  • focus of their educational experiences.

Scope And Depth

One key difference lies in the scope and depth of study.

Undergraduates typically explore a broad range of subjects before focusing on their major. This approach ensures a well-rounded education, preparing them for various career paths or further study.

In contrast, postgraduate students, especially those in graduate school for a doctoral degree, delve deeply into a specific field. Their work is often defined by original research, contributing new knowledge to their discipline.

Coursework And Research

The nature of coursework and research also sets these two groups apart.

Undergraduates spend much of their time in structured classes and lectures, with research components usually introduced in the latter part of their studies, often as part of a final year project.

Postgraduates, particularly grad students in doctoral programs, engage in extensive research from the outset. Their coursework is more specialised, designed to support their research endeavours.


Financial aspects and responsibilities further differentiate the two.

Undergraduate tuition can be substantial, but postgraduate students often face even higher costs, especially in programs like an MBA or medical school.

However, grad students might access more funding opportunities, such as fellowships or teaching assistant positions, which can also entail teaching and mentoring undergraduates, adding to their professional development.

These distinctions highlight the evolutionary nature of academic progression, from the broad explorations of an undergraduate degree to the focused, intensive inquiry characteristic of postgraduate education.

Both Are Prized Students

The journey from an undergraduate to a graduate student is marked by a transition from broad-based learning to specialised research and deeper academic engagement.

While undergraduates lay the groundwork in their chosen fields, graduate students build upon this foundation, pushing the boundaries of knowledge through original research. 

Understanding these distinctions helps demystify the academic path, illuminating the unique challenges and opportunities at each stage of higher education.

The Author

Dr Andrew Stapleton has a Masters and PhD in Chemistry from the UK and Australia. He has many years of research experience and has worked as a Postdoctoral Fellow and Associate at a number of Universities. Although having secured funding for his own research, he left academia to help others with his YouTube channel all about the inner workings of academia and how to make it work for you.